Brief introduction of common techniques in the pro

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Introduction to the commonly used techniques in the production of glass products

glass generally forms liquid viscous liquid after the burning and dissolution of glass raw materials. In order to make it cool and form, the mold blowing method is mostly used. Models made of various materials, such as wood, clay, metal, etc., are used to make the required molds in advance. The molten glass is poured into the model, and the model is opened after cooling. It is generally used for appliances that cannot be made by blowing glass, Most factories adopt this method and can produce in large quantities

the other is blowing molding method, that is, blowing glass, which is to take out an appropriate amount of glass solution, put it on one end of the iron blowing tube, blow while rotating, and use scissors or pliers with skilled techniques to shape it

common techniques

cold working method

1. Color painting uses color paint to paint pictures on the surface of glass at room temperature. Some need to be heated and fixed, while others do not. In the process, metal pigments made of gold and silver foil can also be added, which is called gold decoration painting

2。 Glaze color is a technique of color painting and sound painting that needs to be heated again. On the surface of the glass, the pattern is drawn with glaze color pigments, and then placed in the furnace. With the mediation and elimination of the economic tension of the people in aerospace, national defense, kerosene chemical industry, transportation and other household assets, the heating and fixing pigments are upgraded to avoid peeling off

3。 The technique of inlaying thousands of pieces of colored glass plates with grooved lead bars as the line frame requires drawing a small plan, drawing a sketch of equal size according to the plan, determining the shape and size of each color, cutting the glass plates correctly, and fusing and welding the lead wires into a large mirror

4。 The cold work of engraving without heating, using sand blasting or grinding techniques, will be engraved on the glass plate, to plate making, with engraving machine or roller color, on cotton paper or watercolor paper pressed into engraving

5。 Relief in double-layer or multi-layer color coated glass, the relief of three-dimensional patterns reveals the background color, forming a relief effect

6。 The cutting wheel is used to cut decorative patterns, block surfaces, lines and other decorations on the glass, or the large surface is cut into shapes. Sometimes the double color nested glass shows the special effect of different colors inside and outside

7。 The technique of carving decorative patterns and patterns on the surface of glass with diamond or metal carving, or carving tools such as carving pens can be divided into wheel carving, dot carving, lithography and other techniques due to different tools

8。 Acid etching draws graphics and outlines lines on the glass plate, and then etches patterns of different depths in stages by chemical acid. 9。 The whole glass is covered with adhesive tape before sandblasting. The unwanted parts of the pattern are removed by plating with a carving knife, and then a sandblasting machine is placed. The high spraying force of emery is used to make a fog like effect on the glass

10。 Grinding takes the rotating disc as the grinding table, mixes water and emery, and grinds the planed glass works

11。 Planing takes the rotating leather wheel as the platform, puts the glass on it, and polishes and planes the large plane

12。 Glue the work into the furnace for heating, and use the characteristics of glass to heat and melt the surface to produce brightness

13。 Glue the glass block with adhesive to form a shape

14。 Composite materials are created by using glass and other materials

thermal production method

(the production method between the melting point (1450 degrees) and Xu Leng point (450 degrees) is called thermal)

1. The pressing method injects the molten hot glass paste into the engraved pattern mold and turns it into a block. At the same time, the pattern is also pressed

2。 Sand mold casting press the mold into the sand with moderate depth, spray wet acetylene to prevent the sand mold from falling, and put the glass paste into the sand mold until the glass is slightly ldquo; The structural reform on the supply side not only involves the removal of production capacity after cooling, but also the grinding after cooling

3。 One of the earliest techniques used to make glass windows is embryo core forming. First, mix soil and horse dung to make embryo pericardium, and then dip hot glass paste outside the metal rod to become the main body of the container. Outline the pattern around the glass filament on the outside, and then dig out the embryo core after Xu Leng is finished

4。 Lamp torch thermoplastics is heated by a small spray gun or lamp torch, which is also called LAMP TORCH thermoplastics. It uses only various boron glass or sodium glass rods, and is continuously combined into shapes by stretching, twisting, winding and other skills, which is suitable for small and delicate performances, such as glass beads, animals and plants. Because of the different glass rods used, they are divided into solid, hollow and brushed thermoplastic. In addition, they can also be matched with colored paintings to increase the interest of the work

5。 Blowing originated in the Roman Empire in the first year of the ad, and is still the most important and widely used method in glass technology. Variable fatigue testing machine is used to measure the fatigue characteristics, fatigue life, prefabricated cracks and crack expansion of metals, alloy materials and their components (such as operating joints, fixed parts, spiral moving parts, etc.) under tensile, compressive or tensile alternating loads at room temperature. Blowing is mostly window based. The process refers to that the blowing tube is dipped with molten glass paste, and then the bubbles are formed by blowing, and then the tools are used for thermoplastic modeling, and then another blowing tube is dipped with a small amount of glass for bridging and bottoming, knocking down the work Xu Leng

6。 Dewaxing seriously destroys the microscope casting method. After wrapping the wax mold with fire-resistant gypsum, put the glass raw material and the empty mold into the furnace at the same time for heating. Under high temperature, the glass slowly flows into the mold for molding, and then placed in the furnace for dewaxing. Xu Leng removes the gypsum mold, and then completes the grinding and planing process

7。 The powder casting method fills the glass block and glass powder into the pre designed model, and puts them into the furnace to heat up and melt into the whole glass work

8。 The heating design method in the furnace is a technique of heating and making between 750 degrees and 850 degrees

9。 Thermoplastic fusion: first cut glass or glass pieces with different patterns are combined on the ceramic plate and put into the furnace to heat up into a glass plate, which is usually changed with other techniques

10。 Bake bend put the glass material on the clay that has been designed and made first. When heated, the glass will gradually soften and begin to sag, and then it can fall freely to form. Zhonghua glass () Department

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