Brief introduction of lacquered furniture in the T

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Introduction to lacquered furniture during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of the Three Kingdoms, the two Jin Dynasties, the southern and Northern Dynasties

Introduction to lacquered furniture during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period of the Three Kingdoms, the two Jin Dynasties, the southern and Northern Dynasties

March 1, 2013

reliable and stable operation [Chinese paint information] during the two Jin Dynasties, there were also some new developments in the production process of lacquered decoration, mainly summarized as spot paint decoration, green paint decoration, wood lacquer painting and gold and silver reference belt

now let's focus on the development of Chinese lacquered furniture and living culture in the Three Kingdoms, the Jin Dynasty, the northern and Southern Dynasties, the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms (220-589 A.D.) over a span of nearly 400 years. Generally speaking, in the development history of Chinese lacquer ware, it inherited the afterglow of the Qin and Han Dynasties from the late Han Dynasty to the two Jin Dynasties, and still had a high level and short-term glory, but it inevitably showed an obvious decline immediately

after the introduction of high-rise seats into the Central Plains during the war

the Han Dynasty and the Western Jin Dynasty, after about 50 years of short-term unification, China's feudal dynasty was forced to move southward from the north to establish its capital in Nanjing in the Yangtze River Basin for the first time, thus forming a confrontation between the Eastern Jin Dynasty in the South and the Sixteen Kingdoms of five Hu dominated by barbarians in the north, which lasted for more than 300 years. In the migration of people who are not alienated from each other and frequent contacts and wars, China's traditional culture has suffered a strong impact and undergone profound changes, and has also achieved unprecedented prosperity in science and technology, literature, art and other aspects

this period of great integration of Chinese nationalities is also an important transitional period in the history of the development of ancient Chinese furniture. Stool, armchair and other high-rise seats originally from nomadic peoples or Western Asia and ancient India were introduced into the Central Plains at this time, that is, the tall shape of the West and the tenon of the Chinese style (s ǔ n) Mao structures began to integrate with each other. The traditional way of life of sitting on the ground has not been completely changed, and sitting with feet hanging has been accepted by more and more people. In this period when high-rise furniture and low-rise furniture coexist, generally speaking, low-rise furniture in the south is still dominant, while high-rise furniture such as chairs and stools in some parts of the north have begun to show their heads, and furniture in the category of bedding is also 6 Leather tensile testing machine: the tensile strength and tear strength of leather need to be tested and gradually become higher. The newly emerged furniture mainly includes armchairs, belted round stools, square stools, round tables, benches (W), cabinets, and bamboo and rattan furniture such as "s" and "L" boxes. The increase in the variety of seat furniture reflects the gradual promotion of "sitting with feet" and promotes the development of furniture to high type

after the two Jin Dynasties, lacquerware gradually fell away.

during the two Jin Dynasties, there were more types of furniture. In terms of paint decoration, there were also some new developments in the production process, mainly summarized as spot paint painting, green paint painting, wood lacquer painting and gold and silver reference belt. Spot paint (that is, the current speckle painting) is to mix several colors to produce speckle, or use monochrome paint to show different shades of speckle; The green paint is dark green, deep and quiet, which reflects the new development and achievements of paint mixing technology. The wood lacquer painting uses black lines to depict the story of the characters on the red paint, and the faces and costumes of the characters are painted with color paint (Fig. 1) (Fig. 2). The ginseng carving belt is made of ribbon gold or silver foil, which is processed and carved into various patterns, and then inlaid on the surface of lacquered furniture to make it more magnificent

although the painting technique is becoming more and more mature, lacquerware is gradually becoming lonely. On the one hand, at the beginning of the Six Dynasties, people's thinking began to be influenced by Buddhism. With the continuous outbreak of war, the world was like dew floating on the morning. No matter the upper princes and nobles, down to the working people, they all converted to Buddhism and worshiped fragrant flowers. They often yearned for the pure land of the West and hoped for happiness in the next life, but did not want to produce. On the other hand, celadon in this period has been greatly developed, and its price is low, It gradually replaced lacquerware and became the most widely used utensils in daily life. This can be proved by the unearthed cultural relics

at present, the only batch of cultural relics related to lacquerware in the Three Kingdoms era in China is the tomb of Zhu ran, the famous general of Wu state, Zuo Da Si of the right army division, unearthed in Ma'anshan, Anhui Province in 1984. There are more than 60 exquisite lacquer artifacts unearthed in this batch, including large-scale painted cases; The partition (g é) of the middle division; Three feet by mouth; And plates, bottles, Lian (Li á n), boxes, pots, inkstones, tigers, clogs (J ī)、 There are a total of more than a dozen kinds, such as Chi, and it is found that "shuqunzaolao" (Fig. 3) is remembered. This discovery shows that after the middle of the Eastern Han Dynasty, although the production of lacquerware daily necessities and furniture supervised by the government has declined, the production of lacquerware operated by local or aristocratic people in Shujun county has not ended and continues to develop on the basis of the Qin and Han Dynasties

during the excavation of Zhu Ran's tomb, there was a pair of rhinoceros skin gilded copper buckle leather embryo lacquer feather cups (SH ā NG) (Figure 4) is the unearthed object of the earliest rhinoceros lacquerware found in China so far. "This pair of feather cups, leather fetuses, oval mouths, flat bottoms, ears and mouth edges are inlaid with gold-plated copper buckles. The black paint pattern on the front is not significant, and the back pattern is alternating black, red and yellow. The surface is smooth, and the pattern is naturally smooth, like clouds and flowing water, symmetrical and full of changes... The painting technique of feather cups unearthed in Zhu Ran's tomb is similar to the painting record of the Ming Dynasty." "The technique of 'black face, red and yellow negatives, cloud spotted rhinoceros skin' is very consistent, and it is the only earliest physical resource in China at present." ① (Fig. 5, 6, 7) rhinoceros paint belongs to the "spot paint finishing" mentioned above, which is the painting process only appeared in this period

few lacquerware unearthed during the two Jin and southern and Northern Dynasties are found. The more important ones are the Jin tomb excavated at the construction site of Nanchang new railway station in Jiangxi Province in 1997 and the joint burial tomb of Sima Jinlong and his wife Ji Chen in the Northern Wei Dynasty in shijiazhai, Datong, Shanxi Province. Compared with the two Han and Three Kingdoms periods, the lacquerware of this period has the same style as a whole, or rather call it the continuation of the previous era, showing a lack of innovation or obvious decline

the prosperity of Buddhism and the Millennium origin of Zen chairs

during the war in the northern and Southern Dynasties, Buddhism had a great, profound and meticulous impact on all aspects of spiritual culture and social life at all levels in China. According to the route of Buddhism entering the Central Plains from ancient India through the western regions, we can find that the paintings in the three places show a trend of gradually decreasing stereoscopic sense and gradually increasing planarity by comparing the images of Bodhisattvas in Ajanta Grottoes in India, the flying images in bamiyang Grottoes in Afghanistan, and the concave convex painting method of Khotan (Ti á n) Buddhist painting in the western regions, which was greatly influenced by the art of Gandhara in South Asia in the Wei, Jin and Northern and Southern Dynasties. The essence behind this trend is the gradual reduction of Hellenization and the gradual enhancement of sinicization, which reflects the process of various foreign cultures taking root in Chinese land and finally integrating into Chinese cultural traditions. Mrcurtisevarts, an American, also studied and wrote about the phenomenon in this period, "... in a grotto in Yungang of the Northern Wei Dynasty (about A.D. 470-493), the main Buddha sat on the huge throne in the center, while his disciples sat on the smaller pier,... The influence of Western architecture moved eastward along the Silk Road through the Gandhara region. For example, the xumizuo, where the Buddha sat when lecturing, was probably influenced by the ancient Greek style pedestal, these early sculptures (Fig. 8) It also reveals the origin of those Zen chairs that were popular more than a thousand years later. "

about "Introduction to ancient lacquered furniture and the formation of living culture" has been written in the third chapter of microcomputer control. It is not difficult to find that the impact and integration of thinking and culture have produced brilliant Chinese culture. In the three major sub fields of magnetic materials, high-performance metal materials, and new synthetic materials, they have formed a global cultural confrontation, which will continue to affect the creation of generations of future generations, not only now

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