What is the basic law of the most popular form des

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What is the basic law of formal design aesthetics?

the so-called law is the principle of knowing with universal significance, which is applicable to all. It has philosophical significance, or we can call it design philosophy. It has guiding significance for all application designs. Of course, industrial design is no exception

as we all know, the dialectical materialist epistemology of philosophy holds that the law of unity of opposites is the basic law of all things in human society and nature, and it is also applicable to form design. But the formal design can not apply this Law intact. It has its own personality and characteristics. From the perspective of formal aesthetics, it is equivalent to general philosophy. Its scope is limited, not as broad as general philosophy. At the same time, the form of its research object is static, not as omnipresent and colorful as general philosophy. Therefore, its main task is to study the differences and connections between the elements of the modeling form in the static form in order to remove the mutual relationship of the damaged layers in the polishing process. That is, the antithesis of form is reflected in the differences between the elements of form; The unity of forms is reflected in the links between forms. Further, that is, the opposition between forms is manifested in the different relations between forms; The unity among forms is manifested in the same or similar relations among forms. At the same time, in this relationship, the difference in form is absolute and unconditional (because objectively, the elements of form are diverse and different), and the unification of the elements of form requires certain conditions. Therefore, how to make the elements of form become a unified relationship has become the main problem in the study of form design

to sum up, generally speaking, the basic law of form design is the organic integration of similarities and differences among various elements of form. The so-called organic means that the composition of formal design must have a clear system; At the same time, it should have the similarities and differences between the constituent elements. Furthermore, formal design integrates the similarities and differences among various formal elements It can be said that the process and means of forming a perfect form design are realized by this method (see the legend analysis)

what are the principles of formal design

the law of formal design is the guiding principle for the overall design, and the design principle refers to the specific essentials of the design process. They are "compendium relations". The "compendium" is the three principles that must be observed in the formal design

I. principle of overall conception

when selecting the theme of form composition, the first thing to consider is the macro form composition structure, and should not fall into the interest and preference for parts and details. The overall design concept must be kept in mind at all times and everywhere. The main tendency to ignore the whole idea is the blindness of design. They are often interested in some parts, so that they get more and more involved and dominate. Another tendency is that in the design process, some local design "beautiful points" deviate from the overall relationship and are reluctant to give up. This habit is the last thing we should want. It can be said that as long as the overall design is well grasped, you can basically give 70 points. On the contrary, although your parts and even details are well done, you can give 50 points at most for the design opposite to the overall design. Therefore, the principle of overall conception is the most important thing that must be kept in mind in formal design. (Fig. 1)

Fig. 1 overall, local, detail and relationship diagram

II. The principle of opposites and complementarities

when it comes to the law of formal beauty, it is often called "unity but change". In fact, this formulation is inaccurate. Because the so-called change does not reflect the concept of opposites in the philosophical unity of opposites, because change is only a concept of quantity, it does not reflect the degree of change, that is, it does not reflect the transformation of quality. Therefore, the negative and unified malpractice often appears in the design, resulting in too many coordinated elements and constituent relations, and making the whole lose its vivid effect

therefore, the correct formulation should be opposite and complementary, that is, this factor should be fully considered in the form design, and the overall positive coordination effect should be achieved through appropriate transition means to make the form fresh and vivid. The main means to complement each other is to use the "subtraction" method to prevent too many requirements from being piled up, and at the same time, it is necessary to do more with less. Less but better, that is, less but with connotation, less but with lasting appeal, less but with association, which is thought-provoking. (Fig. 2)

Fig. 2 Diagram of master-slave relationship of opposite and complementary relationship

III. master-slave principle

master-slave relationship is another principle that can not be ignored in form design. The so-called master-slave means that any element in the formal design must be divided into leading and subordinate relationships. And can not be treated equally, master and slave are not divided. In particular, when dealing with the elements of strong contrast, one party must have an absolute advantage in order to achieve the harmony of the overall form. (Fig. 5~2)

of course, there are many other design principles in the formal design, otherwise it is necessary to adjust the control parameters (i.e. conventional P, I, D parameters) of the experimental machine at any time. However, from a macro point of view, these design principles are the most important core principles, so we call them the three design principles. Some people often call symmetry, echo, gradient, etc. principles, which is actually a misunderstanding. These are different transitional methods and means, which cannot be confused with the basic principles

(VI) form the general name of the elements of form is form. In the world of human existence, form can be divided into material form and conceptual form. All the actual material images that people can directly see and touch are called real forms; We call it conceptual form, which is the form that people cannot directly see or touch but must perceive with the help of the concept of language and vocabulary (that is, the second signal system in Psychology). For example, we can not only see a car with our eyes, but also touch it with our hands. In the real world, it is a physical entity that actually occupies space, and its actual form is the form of reality. The actual form we actually feel and experience from reality forms a concept in our mind and is expressed in the form of words. This kind of automobile form expressed in the form of words is the concept form. This conceptual form cannot be seen or touched, so it is also called abstract form

as a conceptual form, it cannot be perceived. However, to study the theory of modeling form, we must use some abstract forms and express them. In this way, we can scientifically study the aesthetic laws and methods of form composition from the height of theory, so as to improve the efficiency of mastering aesthetic theories and methods. Therefore, we call the conceptual form corresponding to natural form and artificial form pure form

it should be pointed out here that the so-called pure form refers to the abstract form expressed in the form of drawings, not the conceptual form in macro theory

in order to facilitate in-depth study of pure form (abstract form), we further divide pure form into positive form and negative form. The so-called positive form refers to the visible form; The negative form refers to the invisible virtual form which is implied by the second time

this form is often encountered in design practice, which can make the design scheme produce more aesthetic effects than less. For example, the vessel shape can be associated with a virtual shape by the shape of the real shape. The vase below indicates the shape curve of the human body through the interface curve, so that the viewer can not only see the real image but also associate with another virtual image, which can be described as killing two birds with one stone (Fig. 6-1)

for example, another sewing machine shape also implies a circular image by its specific shape form (Fig. 6-2)

figure 6

(VII) pure form composition

I. point form

1. The concept of point form

from the geometric concept, the place where the two lines intersect is called a point, which is invisible and has no size. However, in order to study the law of modeling form, we regard them as visual units with images. It has no continuity and directionality in all directions. As a visual unit, its size is relative, and its attributes should be determined according to the relative size relationship of the space in which it is located. If it is called a point in a relatively large environment, but in a relatively small environment, it may be a "face". We can see from (Figure 7-1) that the same large figure will have different visual effects in the case of different relative space environment sizes

generally speaking, point is a relatively circular image, which is the smallest unit among the form elements. However, when analyzing and studying the modeling form, we regard the relatively small and concentrated different images as point elements. See (Figure)

figure 7-1

figure 7-2

2. Characteristics of points

the so-called points are essentially the concept of location. The place, starting point, destination and foothold that we often talk about in our daily life are all this concept. Secondly, after the points are grouped, they also have the connotation of distance, such as the distance between points, the gathering and dispersion relationship, and so on

3 effect of points

to introduce the effect of points, we must first clarify the classification of points, which is the premise of studying point elements. Point elements and can be divided into four types: single point, double point, multi-point and group point. Due to different quantities and composition relations, they have different composition effects

(1) single point

under certain spatial conditions, if only one point element exists, it can attract people's attention and make it a visual center, which will prove this effect in our real life. For example, a fishing boat in the vast sea or a bright moon in the night sky will focus people's attention on them, thus making them the center of space. At the same time, the single point factor also has a positive effect. For example, when a nail word is nailed to the wall, it will make people have the association of strengthening this position, which is the reason why a single point is visually enhanced in a specific space. In addition, a single point element also has a centripetal contraction effect. Because it has no outward expansion direction to the surrounding environment, it produces centripetality of inward compression and cohesion. To sum up, single point elements have three effects: Center, affirmation and cohesion

(2) double points

in a certain space, if there are two point elements with the same size and a certain spatial distance, they will have a negative association of lines. This is due to the psychological influence of the visual tension between the two points, while the two points, unlike the single point effect, do not produce a central effect. At the same time, if the sizes of the two points are different, our attention will first turn to the dominant side to make the constituent relationship dynamic

(3) multipoint

if there are three point elements in a specific spatial field, the negative line shape will be implied between the three points, and then the triangle surface space will be associated. If there are four points, the quadrilateral negative surface space will be implied. (Fig. 7-3a Fig. 7-3b)

Fig. 7-3

(4) point group:

the so-called point group refers to the combination of a large number of dense points. If the points of the same size are uniformly combined to form a point group, because the spatial tension between them is large, it will produce the surface effect; If the combination of supervision and management measures for industrial energy conservation is formulated at different points of different sizes, due to the principle of perspective, the near is far

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